Part V— A Whole New World:  Movie Musicals and Disney

Reclaiming the ‘Top Forty’

PREVIOUSLY:  Part IV— Broadway Tastes Rock Music points out the fluke of “Hello, Dolly!” and the first instance of Broadway rock music topping the charts.

John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John's single

John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John’s single “You’re the One That I Want” proves to be a curious case not only because it is from the movie musical genre, but also because their rendition is original and not a pop cover.

In the study of Broadway songs charting at #1, most lists would end here.  In terms of musical theatre songs moving from stage to single, that would be accurate.  Several other songs that charted at #1 not only fall within the parameters of ‘musical’, however, they are too significant to ignore.  The main difference is that they come from the ‘movie musical’ genre.  They will be included here for one main reason:  precedent.  Though these case studies deal with songs that moved from the world of musical theatre to the world of popular music, to say that the relationship between movies and musicals was anything less than symbiotic would be to cut out a large part of the genre’s history, especially during the 1930’s when a number of Broadway’s top talent joined in the mass exodus to Hollywood.

Such figures as Cole Porter, George and Ira Gershwin, and Irving Berlin all took leaves of absence from the stage to do studio work during the Great Depression.  Composers like Harold Arlen enjoyed a balance between Hollywood and Broadway and moved freely between them.  Therefore, the movie musical is an extension of Broadway.  Who would deny that the original motion picture of The Wizard of Oz is indeed a musical?  In the cross pollination of this art form, many shows are now movies and so the point may be mute, but this brings up the important fact that in many cases, the movie versions helped spark the popularity of some songs.  A number of movie musicals contained songs that charted on the Hot 100 and were the catalysts for that song’s popularity or resurgence.

Therefore this sampling of #1 hits fast forwards to 1978 with the release of the movie musical Grease.  The film turned out to be a success in every way possible; it not only proved to be a blockbuster, but it also produced four songs that charted that year, two of which hit #1.  Both of these songs—“You’re the One That I Want” and “Grease”—were written for the movie by John Farrar and Barry Gibb, respectively.  “You’re the One That I Want” is significant in that the version that was released as the single features the stars of the film—John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John—singing the song exactly as they do in the show.  Like “Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In,” the structure of the song is verse-chorus, and the style is unabashedly rock.

Though “You’re the One That I Want” lasted only a week at #1, the release of the second single, “Grease,” climbed the charts in the weeks following and topped out two months later for two weeks at #1.  Frankie Valli recorded this single for the movie’s opening sequence.  The two other songs from Grease previously mentioned as having charted that year were “Summer Nights” and “Hopelessly Devoted,” though they did not reach #1.  With four charting singles from a show, Grease is not only one of the most successful movie musicals ever, but is an indicator of the relationship with rock music in order for a musical theatre song to successfully chart.  Cynics might also use Grease—as well as Hair—as an example that Broadway is consistently twenty years behind the musical taste of America.


Aladdin and Jasmine’s love ballad “A Whole New World” was the second pop cover Disney released in the 1990s following the title song of “Beauty and the Beast” by Celine Dion and Peabo Bryson.

The final song to explore in the course of #1 hits on the Hot 100 deals with yet another outlier in terms of traditional musical theatre but one that is nonetheless too powerful to ignore.  When it comes to modern creators of American musical theatre, few are as powerful as the Disney Corporation.  Beginning with The Little Mermaid in 1989, Disney ushered in a new era of the animated musical and continued it with Beauty and the Beast in 1991 and Aladdin in 1992.  They are included in this discussion for two reasons.  First, in terms of construction, they employ the same process and techniques that a live stage version employs; they build plot and develop characters through songs and dances.  Secondly, the latter two films released singles from the movie featuring pop stars to accompany the film.

These tracks were created with the intention of crossing over on to the pop charts.  With both Beauty and the Beast and Aladdin, the song chosen for this task was the love ballad.  Celine Dion and Peabo Bryson recorded a duet version of the title track, “Beauty and the Beast,” which came in at #73 for the year 1992.  For Aladdin, Peabo Bryson and Regina Belle recorded “A Whole New World.”  (Bronson 2007 440-441).  The latter song is of most interest to this discussion because the song bumped a fourteen-week run of Whitney Houston’s “I Will Always Love You” from the number one spot for one week in March of 1993.

The writers of “A Whole New World”—Alan Menken and Tim Rice—are now well-known names to those who know the Disney canon, but at the time, they were a new team.  This love ballad was one of the last things written for the show (Bronson 2003 814).  Though the overall structure of Aladdin is precisely what one would expect in terms of exposition numbers, production numbers, and specialty numbers, the main love ballad proves to be unique in both new and old ways.  It is new in that it employs a pop song form of verse-chorus-verse-chorus-bridge-chorus, but it is old in that—like so many songs of the Thirties and Forties—the text is not specific to the show.

Peabo Byrson and Regina Belle's

Peabo Byrson and Regina Belle’s “A Whole New World” bumped Whitney Houston’s “I Will Always Love You” in 1993.

The song can be lifted out of the context of Aladdin and Jasmine’s blossoming courtship with very little to-do.  A line addressing the female—“Tell me, princess…”—seems like a term of endearment instead of actual royalty, and a reference to a “magic carpet ride” seems more metaphoric than literal.  Singers Peabo Bryson and Regina Belle give the song an R&B treatment.

Having considered these last three songs, we now arrive at the end of the number one musical theatre songs on the Hot 100.  Tracing song form, we do see a shift from older song structures—Tin Pan Alley form (AABA) with songs like “Smoke Gets In Your Eyes” and strophic (AAA) like “Mack the Knife”—to the newer pop structure of verse-chorus-verse-chorus-bridge-chorus.  “Age of Aquarius” acted as a transition in that process before arriving solidly in the form with “You’re the One That I Want” and “Grease.”  Two decades later, “A Whole New World” re-confirmed that song form on the charts.  It also demonstrates that to successfully chart, a modern musical theatre song must embrace rock elements within the pop song form.  In addition, a musical theatre song increases its chances of success by not placing itself too firmly within its own show.

Some scholars may quibble about whether or not to include the movie musical genre and the Disney genre within the realm of musical theatre.  For now, we will accept them as part of the musical theatre family.  “A Whole New World” is an intersection of Disney, Broadway, and pop; it is precisely that intersection that makes this study worthwhile, keeps Broadway relevant, and contributes to the total survival of musical theatre.

UP NEXT:   Part VI—Will the Musical Rise Again? asks whether—given the proper circumstances—a Broadway song might gain enough popularity to chart in modern times.  The jumping off point:  “Let It Go.”

All research conducted by Bradley J. Behrmann at San Diego State University (SDSU) and submitted on December 11, 2014.  Findings presented at the Student Research Symposium at SDSU on March 6, 2015.  Subsequent presentation at the Musical Theatre Educators’ Alliance Conference at Western Australia Academy of Performing Arts in Perth, Australia on June 22, 2015.  Bibliography published in final installment.

Part III—Examining Early Chart Toppers

Part III—Reclaiming the ‘Top Forty’

PREVIOUSLY:  Part II—The Changing Face of the Charts in the 1950s includes the earliest tensions between the music of Tin Pan Alley and that of rock ‘n roll. 

For the means of this paper, when referring to songs, we will be referring to the basic melody and lyrics and not the original singer on the original Broadway cast recording.  Even dating back to the early years of the ‘Top 100,’ singers outside of the world of the show were the ones to cover hit songs.  In 1956, for example, The Four Lads covered Frank Loesser’s “Standing on the Corner” from that year’s The Most Happy Fella, not the four actors who sang it in the show (Bronson 2007 330).  It came in at #22 on the biggest songs of 1956.  This trend has several notable exceptions.  Barbra Streisand, for example, made her Billboard debut in 1964 with the single “People” from the musical Funny Girl, a show which served as a star-maker for her.  Another instance when the stars of a show sang their own songs for the single version was Grease in 1978.  The soundtrack from the movie version of the stage play took the charts by storm.  Three singles—“You’re the One That I Want,” “Hopelessly Devoted,” and “Summer Nights”—were lifted straight from the movie and featured John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John.  In short, covering a musical theatre song is nothing new, and with few exceptions, it is the only way musical theatre songs are able to chart at all.

Though dozens of musical theatre songs have landed on the ‘Top/Hot 100’ between 1956 and the present, only seven have successfully reached the pinnacle and charted #1.  Examining these seven points within the galaxy of songs, the constellation reveals two major findings.  First, the sampling reveals a shift in song form from the ‘Tin Pan Alley’ form to ‘pop’ form.  Secondly, the sampling reveals the shifting relationship with rock music.

The first musical theatre song within the lifespan of the ‘Top/Hot 100’ was “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes.”  The Jerome Kern and Otto Harbach song—originally for the 1933 stage production of Roberta—received a new treatment by The Platters in 1959.  Incidentally, throughout Jerome Kern’s life, he resisted any ‘jazzifying’ of his own songs, preferring they be performed as originally conceived.  It comes as no surprise that Mr. Kern’s widow was opposed to the new recording and even sought an injunction against it.  The recording, however, revived a tired song from two decades prior.  The Platters themselves were a vocal quintet of international acclaim, and their rendition of “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” exemplified the crooner aesthetic.  Even Mercury Record executive Art Talmadge wanted the group to record more modern material—novelty songs like Bob Gaudio’s “Short Shorts” was hitting the charts—instead of old standards (Bronson 2003 48).

The Platters revived the old Kern and Harbach tune

The Platters revived the old Kern and Harbach tune “Smoke Gets In Your Eyes” from Roberta.

In terms of song form, “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” was old-fashioned.  It employed a standard ‘Tin Pan Alley’ form of AABA.  This structure begins with a simple melody—usually eight bars in length—and then repeats that melodic material with slightly different lyrics.  These sixteen measure (AA) comprise the first half of the AABA form.  With the B section—sometimes called the ‘bridge’ in Tin Pan Alley parlance—comes new melodic material and lyrics.  After that, the A section returns with new lyrics and brings the song to a climax and resolution.  The whole structure usually totals 32 measures of music, hence providing the basis for the standard 32-measure audition cut.  This song form was in its prime when Roberta premiered on Broadway in 1933, though it was still popular thanks in part to crooners of the Forties and Fifties like Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, and Dean Martin.  “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” stayed three weeks at #1 in 1959.

Bobby Darin recorded a new version of

Bobby Darin recorded a new version of “Moritat” from The Threepenny Opera called “Mack the Knife.” Its enjoyed abundant success in 1959.

Later that year, another decades-old musical theatre song enjoyed a nine week-long stint in the #1 spot:  “Mack the Knife” recorded by Bobby Darin.  In fact, both the source material and the song form employed for “Mack the Knife” are older than in the case of “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes.”  Rather than the Tin Pan Alley style, “Mack the Knife” is strophic:  the song employs the same melody for each verse as a church hymn might do.  The treatment of the tune is very much in the crooner aesthetic, and the orchestrations employ a big band swing style.

Though the The Threepenny Opera—written in 1928 by Kurt Weill and Bertholt Brecht—enjoyed a brief run on Broadway in 1933, the popularity of The Threepenny Opera in the Fifties was in part due to the 1954 Off-Broadway revival with a new translation by Marc Blitzstein.  In 1956, The Dick Hyman Trio recorded a version of “Moritat” that came in at #48 for the year.  Bobby Darin styled his version of “Moritat” after a recording by Louis Armstrong and featured the new Blitzstein lyrics.  The song—now known as “Mack the Knife”—not only lasted nine weeks at number one and claimed the number one spot for 1959, but it also has the distinction as the number one musical theatre song in Billboard’s history (Bronson 2007 303).

Following “Mack the Knife,” Broadway would have to wait five years before another musical theatre song would top the charts.  Rock ‘n’ roll had established itself in the realm of American popular music, and the musical landscape was changing.  The early Sixties brought groups like The Four Seasons who broke onto the scene with “Sherry” in 1962, “Big Girls Don’t Cry” later that year, and “Walk Like a Man” in 1963.  The charts in 1962-63 also brought girl groups in the do-wop style like The Shirelles with “Soldier Boy”, The Crystals with “He’s a Rebel”, and The Chiffons with “He’s So Fine.”  But one of the most significant musical events in the early Sixties was the British Invasion.

The Beatles had a profound effect on musical theatre songs placement on the pop charts.

The Beatles had a profound effect on the placement of musical theatre songs on the pop charts.

The Beatles popularity exploded in the United States with the release of “I Want to Hold Your Hand.”  Though the US release was originally scheduled for January 13, 1964, disc jockeys who obtained copies from Britain thanks to the earlier UK release created a clamor for their music, and executives moved the US release to December 26, 1963.  According to Billboard’s Fred Bronson, “The importance of ‘I Want to Hold Your Hand’ cannot be overestimated.  Next to ‘(We’re Gonna) Rock Around the Clock,’ it is the most significant single of the rock era, permanently changing the course of music” (2003 143).  In terms of numbers, their breakout song lasted seven weeks at #1.  Their second single, “She Loves You,” took the spot in the two weeks after that.  Their third single, “Can’t Buy Me Love,” assumed the top slot in the five weeks following.  It is, therefore, incredibly remarkable that for the week of May 9, 1964, The Beatles reign at the top of the charts was briefly interrupted by jazz trumpeter Louis Armstrong with his smash hit recording of the title song from the Broadway musical Hello, Dolly!

UP NEXT:  Part IV— Broadway Tastes Rock Music points out the fluke of “Hello, Dolly!” and the first instance of Broadway rock music topping the charts.

All research conducted by Bradley J. Behrmann at San Diego State University (SDSU) and submitted on December 11, 2014.  Findings presented at the Student Research Symposium at SDSU on March 6, 2015.  Subsequent presentation at the Musical Theatre Educators’ Alliance Conference at Western Australia Academy of Performing Arts in Perth, Australia on June 22, 2015.  Bibliography published in final installment.

Part II—The Changing Face of the Charts in the 1950s

Part II—Reclaiming the ‘Top Forty’

PREVIOUSLY:  Part I— Defining a Song’s Popularity Using the Charts looked at the evolution of song chartability from Billboard’s ‘Best Selling Singles,’ ‘Rhythm & Blues,’ and ‘Country & Western’ charts to the current ‘Hot 100’

While it might be easy to “blame rock ‘n’ roll”, the birth of rock ‘n’ roll and its takeover of the charts in the 1950s was only one factor in Broadway music’s erosion from the pop charts.  No doubt, rock changed American popular music and created a generational gap, but in terms of chartable popularity, rock did more to unify listenership than to divide it.


Elvis Presley’s “Hound Dog”/ “Don’t Be Cruel” became the first song in the history of American popular music to attain number one status on all three of Billboard’s major charts in 1956, essentially unifying a disparate listenership.

From 1956-1960, rock ‘n’ roll—particularly a young musician named Elvis Presley—provided the most unity of the three charts and therefore of America’s popular musical tastes to date.  Elvis Presley’s “Heartbreak Hotel” earned the number one position on both the ‘Best Selling Singles’ and the ‘County & Western’ charts as well as placing high on the ‘Rhythm and Blues’ list in 1956.  Later that year, the disc “Hound Dog”/ “Don’t Be Cruel” became the first in the history of American popular music to attain number one status on all three charts (Hamm 126).  But this unanimity dissipated in the early 1960s, returning the markets to their former subcultures with two significant differences.  First, rock ‘n’ roll remained as a mainstay of the newly-created ‘Hot 100’ which was formerly occupied almost exclusively by the Tin Pan Alley genre.  Second, artists who might never have crossed over into other markets were able to find listeners in some cases outside their expected audience.  For example, white listeners who found ‘Rhythm & Blues’ music appealing have helped artists like James Brown, Gladys Knight, Stevie Wonder, Aretha Franklin, Marvin Gaye, and Michael Jackson earn spots on the ‘Hot 100’ throughout the 1960s.  By and large, however black listeners did not respond as well to music by white performers.  Even the Beatles sold poorly in markets that catered to black listeners.  Still, from this point on, the ‘Hot 100’ marked song popularity across genres in the US.

Broadway music itself shifted in significant ways during the 1940s and 1950s thanks in large part to the “Rodgers and Hammerstein revolution.”  Starting with Oklahoma! in 1943, their shows made strides towards popularizing the musical in Okla_bway_1943terms of record sales but also made strides away from their playability on the airwaves.  While the Tin Pan Alley song form was still alive in terms of the musical structure of Rodgers & Hammerstein songs, the integration of their lyrics to the storytelling started to prove difficult to lift them out of context.  The bench scene in Carousel features luscious music, but the specificity with which Rodgers and Hammerstein were writing their lyrics—not to mention the fluid movement between dialogue and song—didn’t lend for a hit single that could be lifted straight from the score.  Later in Carousel, Bill has a seven-minute journey in “Soliloquy,” much too long compared to a three-minute radio song.  ed90fb45d5b0824f0fd9fa7dfa51b92dThe integrated style they were innovating was meant to serve the story, not sell singles.  This is not to say that Rodgers and Hammerstein were not thinking of record sales.  In fact, Oklahoma! boasts the first original Broadway cast recording that included the actual cast with the actual orchestrations—instead of a big band crooner cover of their songs.  This was beneficial in bringing the home listener a complete experience of a Broadway show.  Sale of cast albums soared.  The original Broadway cast recording of South Pacific was the top-selling record of the 1950s.  But just as Broadway was innovating towards the album and a means of mass-proliferating its music, radio airplay was trending away from it and towards the single.

“[Sondheim’s] songs seldom achieve popularity outside the context of their shows because the composer creates material exclusive to context, to the particular characters for whom the songs are written and the specific situation that precipitates the dramatic revelation.”

-Richard Kislan

Following in Rodgers and Hammerstein’s tradition, Hammerstein’s protégé Stephen Sondheim took the integration of score and story even further.  What Sondheim then did was to create songs that were so intertwined with story that extracting them for the purposes of making a single became nearly impossible.  As Richard Kislan states:  “His songs seldom achieve popularity outside the context of their shows because the composer creates material exclusive to context, to the particular characters for whom the songs are written and the specific situation that precipitates the dramatic revelation” (150).  He goes on further to explain that these songs “defy transplantation with the tenacity of any vital organ determined to remain in the body for which it was designed.”  Imagine “I’m Not Getting Married Today” from Company—a spastic bride’s tongue-twisting tirade on how she is not marrying her fiancé, Paul—on the airwaves.  The general population would not understand the frenetic wordplay, would not be able to sing along, and would wonder who this ‘Paul’ is.  In his book, The Musical:  A Look at the American Musical Theater, Kislan states that the modern theatre song exists to fulfill a dramatic or theatrical function (219).  In particular, the composer uses the theatre song to do one or more of the following:  project character, intensify emotion, create dramatic images, embody a theme, or suggest time and place.  It would seem that if a musical theatre song achieves any of these too successfully, they may have trouble gaining chartable popularity.

UP NEXT:  Part III—Examining Early Chart Toppers includes early #1 hits “Smoke Gets In Your Eyes” and “Mack the Knife.”

All research conducted by Bradley J. Behrmann at San Diego State University (SDSU) and submitted on December 11, 2014.  Findings presented at the Student Research Symposium at SDSU on March 6, 2015.  Subsequent presentation at the Musical Theatre Educators’ Alliance Conference at Western Australia Academy of Performing Arts in Perth, Australia on June 22, 2015.  Bibliography published in final installment.

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