Part V— A Whole New World:  Movie Musicals and Disney

Reclaiming the ‘Top Forty’

PREVIOUSLY:  Part IV— Broadway Tastes Rock Music points out the fluke of “Hello, Dolly!” and the first instance of Broadway rock music topping the charts.

John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John's single

John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John’s single “You’re the One That I Want” proves to be a curious case not only because it is from the movie musical genre, but also because their rendition is original and not a pop cover.

In the study of Broadway songs charting at #1, most lists would end here.  In terms of musical theatre songs moving from stage to single, that would be accurate.  Several other songs that charted at #1 not only fall within the parameters of ‘musical’, however, they are too significant to ignore.  The main difference is that they come from the ‘movie musical’ genre.  They will be included here for one main reason:  precedent.  Though these case studies deal with songs that moved from the world of musical theatre to the world of popular music, to say that the relationship between movies and musicals was anything less than symbiotic would be to cut out a large part of the genre’s history, especially during the 1930’s when a number of Broadway’s top talent joined in the mass exodus to Hollywood.

Such figures as Cole Porter, George and Ira Gershwin, and Irving Berlin all took leaves of absence from the stage to do studio work during the Great Depression.  Composers like Harold Arlen enjoyed a balance between Hollywood and Broadway and moved freely between them.  Therefore, the movie musical is an extension of Broadway.  Who would deny that the original motion picture of The Wizard of Oz is indeed a musical?  In the cross pollination of this art form, many shows are now movies and so the point may be mute, but this brings up the important fact that in many cases, the movie versions helped spark the popularity of some songs.  A number of movie musicals contained songs that charted on the Hot 100 and were the catalysts for that song’s popularity or resurgence.

Therefore this sampling of #1 hits fast forwards to 1978 with the release of the movie musical Grease.  The film turned out to be a success in every way possible; it not only proved to be a blockbuster, but it also produced four songs that charted that year, two of which hit #1.  Both of these songs—“You’re the One That I Want” and “Grease”—were written for the movie by John Farrar and Barry Gibb, respectively.  “You’re the One That I Want” is significant in that the version that was released as the single features the stars of the film—John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John—singing the song exactly as they do in the show.  Like “Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In,” the structure of the song is verse-chorus, and the style is unabashedly rock.

Though “You’re the One That I Want” lasted only a week at #1, the release of the second single, “Grease,” climbed the charts in the weeks following and topped out two months later for two weeks at #1.  Frankie Valli recorded this single for the movie’s opening sequence.  The two other songs from Grease previously mentioned as having charted that year were “Summer Nights” and “Hopelessly Devoted,” though they did not reach #1.  With four charting singles from a show, Grease is not only one of the most successful movie musicals ever, but is an indicator of the relationship with rock music in order for a musical theatre song to successfully chart.  Cynics might also use Grease—as well as Hair—as an example that Broadway is consistently twenty years behind the musical taste of America.

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Aladdin and Jasmine’s love ballad “A Whole New World” was the second pop cover Disney released in the 1990s following the title song of “Beauty and the Beast” by Celine Dion and Peabo Bryson.

The final song to explore in the course of #1 hits on the Hot 100 deals with yet another outlier in terms of traditional musical theatre but one that is nonetheless too powerful to ignore.  When it comes to modern creators of American musical theatre, few are as powerful as the Disney Corporation.  Beginning with The Little Mermaid in 1989, Disney ushered in a new era of the animated musical and continued it with Beauty and the Beast in 1991 and Aladdin in 1992.  They are included in this discussion for two reasons.  First, in terms of construction, they employ the same process and techniques that a live stage version employs; they build plot and develop characters through songs and dances.  Secondly, the latter two films released singles from the movie featuring pop stars to accompany the film.

These tracks were created with the intention of crossing over on to the pop charts.  With both Beauty and the Beast and Aladdin, the song chosen for this task was the love ballad.  Celine Dion and Peabo Bryson recorded a duet version of the title track, “Beauty and the Beast,” which came in at #73 for the year 1992.  For Aladdin, Peabo Bryson and Regina Belle recorded “A Whole New World.”  (Bronson 2007 440-441).  The latter song is of most interest to this discussion because the song bumped a fourteen-week run of Whitney Houston’s “I Will Always Love You” from the number one spot for one week in March of 1993.

The writers of “A Whole New World”—Alan Menken and Tim Rice—are now well-known names to those who know the Disney canon, but at the time, they were a new team.  This love ballad was one of the last things written for the show (Bronson 2003 814).  Though the overall structure of Aladdin is precisely what one would expect in terms of exposition numbers, production numbers, and specialty numbers, the main love ballad proves to be unique in both new and old ways.  It is new in that it employs a pop song form of verse-chorus-verse-chorus-bridge-chorus, but it is old in that—like so many songs of the Thirties and Forties—the text is not specific to the show.

Peabo Byrson and Regina Belle's

Peabo Byrson and Regina Belle’s “A Whole New World” bumped Whitney Houston’s “I Will Always Love You” in 1993.

The song can be lifted out of the context of Aladdin and Jasmine’s blossoming courtship with very little to-do.  A line addressing the female—“Tell me, princess…”—seems like a term of endearment instead of actual royalty, and a reference to a “magic carpet ride” seems more metaphoric than literal.  Singers Peabo Bryson and Regina Belle give the song an R&B treatment.

Having considered these last three songs, we now arrive at the end of the number one musical theatre songs on the Hot 100.  Tracing song form, we do see a shift from older song structures—Tin Pan Alley form (AABA) with songs like “Smoke Gets In Your Eyes” and strophic (AAA) like “Mack the Knife”—to the newer pop structure of verse-chorus-verse-chorus-bridge-chorus.  “Age of Aquarius” acted as a transition in that process before arriving solidly in the form with “You’re the One That I Want” and “Grease.”  Two decades later, “A Whole New World” re-confirmed that song form on the charts.  It also demonstrates that to successfully chart, a modern musical theatre song must embrace rock elements within the pop song form.  In addition, a musical theatre song increases its chances of success by not placing itself too firmly within its own show.

Some scholars may quibble about whether or not to include the movie musical genre and the Disney genre within the realm of musical theatre.  For now, we will accept them as part of the musical theatre family.  “A Whole New World” is an intersection of Disney, Broadway, and pop; it is precisely that intersection that makes this study worthwhile, keeps Broadway relevant, and contributes to the total survival of musical theatre.

UP NEXT:   Part VI—Will the Musical Rise Again? asks whether—given the proper circumstances—a Broadway song might gain enough popularity to chart in modern times.  The jumping off point:  “Let It Go.”

All research conducted by Bradley J. Behrmann at San Diego State University (SDSU) and submitted on December 11, 2014.  Findings presented at the Student Research Symposium at SDSU on March 6, 2015.  Subsequent presentation at the Musical Theatre Educators’ Alliance Conference at Western Australia Academy of Performing Arts in Perth, Australia on June 22, 2015.  Bibliography published in final installment.

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Part III—Examining Early Chart Toppers

Part III—Reclaiming the ‘Top Forty’

PREVIOUSLY:  Part II—The Changing Face of the Charts in the 1950s includes the earliest tensions between the music of Tin Pan Alley and that of rock ‘n roll. 

For the means of this paper, when referring to songs, we will be referring to the basic melody and lyrics and not the original singer on the original Broadway cast recording.  Even dating back to the early years of the ‘Top 100,’ singers outside of the world of the show were the ones to cover hit songs.  In 1956, for example, The Four Lads covered Frank Loesser’s “Standing on the Corner” from that year’s The Most Happy Fella, not the four actors who sang it in the show (Bronson 2007 330).  It came in at #22 on the biggest songs of 1956.  This trend has several notable exceptions.  Barbra Streisand, for example, made her Billboard debut in 1964 with the single “People” from the musical Funny Girl, a show which served as a star-maker for her.  Another instance when the stars of a show sang their own songs for the single version was Grease in 1978.  The soundtrack from the movie version of the stage play took the charts by storm.  Three singles—“You’re the One That I Want,” “Hopelessly Devoted,” and “Summer Nights”—were lifted straight from the movie and featured John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John.  In short, covering a musical theatre song is nothing new, and with few exceptions, it is the only way musical theatre songs are able to chart at all.

Though dozens of musical theatre songs have landed on the ‘Top/Hot 100’ between 1956 and the present, only seven have successfully reached the pinnacle and charted #1.  Examining these seven points within the galaxy of songs, the constellation reveals two major findings.  First, the sampling reveals a shift in song form from the ‘Tin Pan Alley’ form to ‘pop’ form.  Secondly, the sampling reveals the shifting relationship with rock music.

The first musical theatre song within the lifespan of the ‘Top/Hot 100’ was “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes.”  The Jerome Kern and Otto Harbach song—originally for the 1933 stage production of Roberta—received a new treatment by The Platters in 1959.  Incidentally, throughout Jerome Kern’s life, he resisted any ‘jazzifying’ of his own songs, preferring they be performed as originally conceived.  It comes as no surprise that Mr. Kern’s widow was opposed to the new recording and even sought an injunction against it.  The recording, however, revived a tired song from two decades prior.  The Platters themselves were a vocal quintet of international acclaim, and their rendition of “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” exemplified the crooner aesthetic.  Even Mercury Record executive Art Talmadge wanted the group to record more modern material—novelty songs like Bob Gaudio’s “Short Shorts” was hitting the charts—instead of old standards (Bronson 2003 48).

The Platters revived the old Kern and Harbach tune

The Platters revived the old Kern and Harbach tune “Smoke Gets In Your Eyes” from Roberta.

In terms of song form, “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” was old-fashioned.  It employed a standard ‘Tin Pan Alley’ form of AABA.  This structure begins with a simple melody—usually eight bars in length—and then repeats that melodic material with slightly different lyrics.  These sixteen measure (AA) comprise the first half of the AABA form.  With the B section—sometimes called the ‘bridge’ in Tin Pan Alley parlance—comes new melodic material and lyrics.  After that, the A section returns with new lyrics and brings the song to a climax and resolution.  The whole structure usually totals 32 measures of music, hence providing the basis for the standard 32-measure audition cut.  This song form was in its prime when Roberta premiered on Broadway in 1933, though it was still popular thanks in part to crooners of the Forties and Fifties like Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, and Dean Martin.  “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” stayed three weeks at #1 in 1959.

Bobby Darin recorded a new version of

Bobby Darin recorded a new version of “Moritat” from The Threepenny Opera called “Mack the Knife.” Its enjoyed abundant success in 1959.

Later that year, another decades-old musical theatre song enjoyed a nine week-long stint in the #1 spot:  “Mack the Knife” recorded by Bobby Darin.  In fact, both the source material and the song form employed for “Mack the Knife” are older than in the case of “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes.”  Rather than the Tin Pan Alley style, “Mack the Knife” is strophic:  the song employs the same melody for each verse as a church hymn might do.  The treatment of the tune is very much in the crooner aesthetic, and the orchestrations employ a big band swing style.

Though the The Threepenny Opera—written in 1928 by Kurt Weill and Bertholt Brecht—enjoyed a brief run on Broadway in 1933, the popularity of The Threepenny Opera in the Fifties was in part due to the 1954 Off-Broadway revival with a new translation by Marc Blitzstein.  In 1956, The Dick Hyman Trio recorded a version of “Moritat” that came in at #48 for the year.  Bobby Darin styled his version of “Moritat” after a recording by Louis Armstrong and featured the new Blitzstein lyrics.  The song—now known as “Mack the Knife”—not only lasted nine weeks at number one and claimed the number one spot for 1959, but it also has the distinction as the number one musical theatre song in Billboard’s history (Bronson 2007 303).

Following “Mack the Knife,” Broadway would have to wait five years before another musical theatre song would top the charts.  Rock ‘n’ roll had established itself in the realm of American popular music, and the musical landscape was changing.  The early Sixties brought groups like The Four Seasons who broke onto the scene with “Sherry” in 1962, “Big Girls Don’t Cry” later that year, and “Walk Like a Man” in 1963.  The charts in 1962-63 also brought girl groups in the do-wop style like The Shirelles with “Soldier Boy”, The Crystals with “He’s a Rebel”, and The Chiffons with “He’s So Fine.”  But one of the most significant musical events in the early Sixties was the British Invasion.

The Beatles had a profound effect on musical theatre songs placement on the pop charts.

The Beatles had a profound effect on the placement of musical theatre songs on the pop charts.

The Beatles popularity exploded in the United States with the release of “I Want to Hold Your Hand.”  Though the US release was originally scheduled for January 13, 1964, disc jockeys who obtained copies from Britain thanks to the earlier UK release created a clamor for their music, and executives moved the US release to December 26, 1963.  According to Billboard’s Fred Bronson, “The importance of ‘I Want to Hold Your Hand’ cannot be overestimated.  Next to ‘(We’re Gonna) Rock Around the Clock,’ it is the most significant single of the rock era, permanently changing the course of music” (2003 143).  In terms of numbers, their breakout song lasted seven weeks at #1.  Their second single, “She Loves You,” took the spot in the two weeks after that.  Their third single, “Can’t Buy Me Love,” assumed the top slot in the five weeks following.  It is, therefore, incredibly remarkable that for the week of May 9, 1964, The Beatles reign at the top of the charts was briefly interrupted by jazz trumpeter Louis Armstrong with his smash hit recording of the title song from the Broadway musical Hello, Dolly!

UP NEXT:  Part IV— Broadway Tastes Rock Music points out the fluke of “Hello, Dolly!” and the first instance of Broadway rock music topping the charts.

All research conducted by Bradley J. Behrmann at San Diego State University (SDSU) and submitted on December 11, 2014.  Findings presented at the Student Research Symposium at SDSU on March 6, 2015.  Subsequent presentation at the Musical Theatre Educators’ Alliance Conference at Western Australia Academy of Performing Arts in Perth, Australia on June 22, 2015.  Bibliography published in final installment.

Part I—Reclaiming the ‘Top Forty’: Broadway’s Relationship with Popular Music

The debate over popular music’s place on the Great White Way continues to rage; on the flip side of the coin, the Broadway music lovers of the world mourn that they are in an extreme minority.  Why?  There was a time when popular music and Broadway music were in fact the same genre.  Over the course of the next few weeks, we’ll be exploring that time period and also asking what changed the landscape of popular music. 

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Part I— Defining a Song’s Popularity Using the Charts

The music of Broadway has always been a genre in dialogue with the popular music of the time.  In the early part of the twentieth century, theatre-goers could expect to hear the music they found in theatres broadcast on that new device—radio—and conversely, they thrilled to hear their favorite radio and parlor hits sung live onstage.  In a not-so-distant era, the music of Broadway was popular music.  At some point, however, the homogeneity that existed between popular music and Broadway music began to fissure.  At various junctures in musical theatre history, Broadway looked to popular music, but popular music seemed to give little regard to Broadway.  One data-driven indicator of the relationship between Broadway and popular music lies in a Broadway song’s inclusion in the ‘Top Forty’ charts.  The idea of the ‘Top Forty’ serves as the standard measure for song popularity in the United States, and it stands to reason that any Broadway song that made the charts successfully “crossed over” the genre divide.

This paper will first define the parameters for how a song charts and define terminology both in the context of the industry and for use in this paper.  After that, the research will investigate several factors of the 1940s and 1950s that changed how music was published, recorded, and distributed and how that affected the chartable popularity of musical theatre songs.  Finally, this paper will examine the seven singles that can be classified as musical theatre songs that reached #1 on Billboard’s ‘Top 100’ or ‘Hot 100’ between 1955 and the present and use them to map a musical course through the Rock Era.  This paper will use 1955 as a reference point for three reasons: first, Bill Haley and His Comets topped the charts that year with “Rock Around the Clock” which signaled the beginning of the Rock Era; second, the year marked the creation of the ‘Top 100’ which merged several disparate music charts into one; third, the musical theatre was in its own ‘Golden Age’ with giants such as Rodgers and Hammerstein and Frank Loesser dominating the landscape.  Given these three aims, this research will describe the relationship between Broadway music and popular music from 1956 until today.

Let’s first define ‘Top Forty.’  In one regard, the top forty (lowercase ‘t’, lowercase ‘f’) is an idea.  It is a radio programming principle created to feature only the most popular music content.  Following World War II, an Omaha-based record executive developed the format.  Radio programming of the time consisted primarily of national programming distributed to local affiliates.  In the late 1940’s, radio programming shifted to include an increasing amount of recorded music (using long play records, or LPs) as opposed to live programming (featuring a house band) which had been the norm in the 1930s and early 1940s (Peterson 112).  3_vinyl_singlesIn addition, new record technologies following the war created a smaller vinyl record meant to include two single songs.  The “45” proved to be a cheap way for most Americans to consume music as well as a way to program for a broadening radio listenership.

photo-toddstorz

Mark Stolz, Omaha-based radio music director who–as the story goes–invented the ‘Top Forty’ as a programming principle after an incident at a diner.

As radio industry lore goes, the invention of the ‘Top Forty’ can be traced to Omaha, Nebraska.  While at a diner in 1954, a radio music director named Mark Stolz and one of his disc jockeys became increasingly annoyed with a waitress who kept putting money in the jukebox to play the same two songs repeatedly.  Despite the frustration, he observed that this woman was voluntarily spending her own money for this very specific niche of the market.  After that, Stolz began playing exclusively songs that the trade magazine charts showed were hit singles.  His station’s popularity skyrocketed, and the formatting principle took hold in other major radio stations across America.  The term ‘top forty’ evolved as a result of this highly focused playlist that included roughly the top forty or so of the hundred songs from the weekly industry magazines (Peterson 113).

For the sake of clarification, the ‘Top Forty’ (capital ‘T’, capital ‘F’) can also serve as reference to a very specific radio program: American Top 40.  This internationally syndicated, independent song countdown is also known as AT40.  Long-time host Casey Kasem created the radio program along with Don Bustany, Tom Rounds, and Ron Jacobs in 1970.  As opposed to ‘top forty’ programming as a guiding principle, the radio show exclusively uses the top forty songs of the week and counts down to the number one song.

Casey Kasem, co-founder and long-time host of 'American Top 40.'

Casey Kasem, co-founder and long-time host of ‘American Top 40.’

Distribution of this program now resides with Premiere Radio Networks although the show was originally a production of Watermark, Inc., a division of ABC Radio.  Though Kasem is most recognized with the program—two different vintage shows from the 70s and 80s are still aired weekly—Ryan Seacrest has served as the host since 2004.  Originally, AT40 used the Billboard charts to determine what songs made the countdown but in 1998 switched to Radio and Records, a now-defunct trade magazine competitor to Billboard.  Currently, AT40 uses Mediabase to determine their list; Mediabase is a music industry service that monitors radio station airplay for both terrestrial and satellite airplay.

Ryan Seacrest, current host of 'AT40,' the successor of 'American Top 40.'

Ryan Seacrest, current host of ‘AT40,’ the successor of ‘American Top 40.’

Despite the varied definitions, abstractions, and sources of the ‘top forty,’ this paper will derive its findings from the data published by BillboardBillboard magazine is the industry standard for charting song popularity.  Aside from being among the oldest trade magazines in the world—it was first published in 1894—the lists they currently produce give a ranking of both top song and top album regardless of genre.  While its history includes an assortment of lists—some of which are relevant to this investigation—the rankings that span genres will be the most useful in comparing musical theatre songs.  Without trying to add confusion, Billboard does not actually publish a ‘top forty.’  Billboard does, however, publish the ‘Hot 100.’  That term has served as the primary chart of the top one hundred songs across all genres each week since August 4, 1958.  Billboard uses data collected by Neilsen SoundScan which tracks song popularity based on digital download sales, radio airplay, and internet streaming.  Billboard has used Neilsen Soundscan since 1991.  The ‘Hot 100’ is in itself a merging of several previously published lists.

The ‘Top 100’ was the immediate predecessor to the ‘Hot 100’ and tried to combine all aspects of a song from three other lists: Best Selling Singles, Most Played by Jockeys, and Most Played in Jukeboxes.  This iteration lasted from November 12, 1955 until the creation of the ‘Hot 100’ in 1958.  In the chronology of definitive lists, the previous list to the ‘Top 100’ the list called ‘Best Selling Singles’ (Hamm 126).  Here again, Billboard’s term requires a bit of explanation.   Though Billboard currently tracks and reports lists in genres ranging from gospel to Latin to pop, prior to 1955, chartable music fell into one of three distinct categories:  Best Selling Singles, Race Records, and Country & Western (Hamm 126).  The existence of these three provide a picture of the state of affairs of not only the music publishing business, recording industry, and radio airplay practices of the 1940s, it even allows an accurate glimpse of the racial boundaries of America during that time.

hot 100 83

The ‘Best Selling Singles’ list included all of the music of Tin Pan Alley—a mostly white, Jewish set of composers, many of whom came from immigrant backgrounds and lived in New York City.  The music on the ‘Best Selling Singles’ primarily appealed to urban whites.  The ‘Race Records’—later called ‘Rhythm & Blues’—list charted blues players and black jazz and gospel musicians.  The music appealed mostly to blacks, both urban and rural.  The ‘Country & Western’ list included folk and bluegrass artists.  This music appealed primarily to rural whites.  Between these lists, crossover for both performer and listenership was rare.  Broadway music fell squarely into the category of ‘Best Selling Singles.’  Audiences found music across markets to be hard to relate to:  consider a rural, white farmer listening to the upper class problems in a Cole Porter song, for example.  The musical camps of the early part of the last century had drawn their lines.  Then along came rock ‘n’ roll.

UP NEXT:  Part II—The Changing Face of the Charts in the 1950s includes the earliest tensions between the music of Tin Pan Alley and that of rock ‘n roll.

All research conducted by Bradley J. Behrmann at San Diego State University (SDSU) and submitted on December 11, 2014.  Findings presented at the Student Research Symposium at SDSU on March 6, 2015.  Subsequent presentation at the Musical Theatre Educators’ Alliance Conference at Western Australia Academy of Performing Arts in Perth, Australia on June 22, 2015.  Bibliography published in final installment.

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